For the next Five years, Belantara has chosen to focus the vast majority of its conservation supports on ten grant distribution areas hose locations span five provinces and to islands (Sumatra and kalimantan These ten specified grant distribution areas cover 10,145,187.85 hectares of land that includes 4 national parks, 9 wildlife areas, 4 nature reserves, and 2 grand forest parks; as well as Biosphere Reserves. Just over 1,000 vertebrate species have been identified within Belantara's grant distribution areas, including 209 species that are protected by the overnment of Indonesia and 213 species that are globally endangered according to IUCN's Red List.
Indicators for the identification of the priority grant distribution areas weere based on:
The Kutai ecosystem covers an area of 977,000 hectares on the northern side of the Mahakam River, in East Kalimantan province. It consists of several different types of ecosystems- tropical lowland forest, peat swamp forest, freshwater swamp forest, mangrove forest, and Sundaland heath forest (Kerangas forest). The ecosystem includes Lakes Maau, Santan, Besar and Sirapan. The core area of the Kutai ecosystem is Kutai ational Park, which comprises 198,629 hectares. The park is well known as an important habitat for Bornean orangutans. In addition, the park provides a habitat for 10 species of primates and about 90 species of other mammals, including the rare and endangered freshwater Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris and proboscis monkey asalis larvatus . The park is also home to more than 300 species of birds.
The Kubu ecosystem is located in southwest West Kalimantan province. The area consists of lowland tropical rainforest, peat swamp, freshwater swamp and mangrove forests. The ecosystem covers an area of 922,821 hectares and is known as a vital habitat for Bornean orangutans, proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) and false gharial. The coastal and estuary areas of this ecosystem are one of the few habitats for the Irrawaddy dolphin (Orcaella brevirostris), an endangered aquatic mammal. Other protected species found in the ubu ecosystem include the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), Muller’s Bornean gibbon (Hylobates muelleri), slow loris, and Horsfeld’s tarsier (Tarsius bancanus).
Senepis is an ecosystem located in northern Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia. It covers 322,966 hectares, and is dominated by peat swamp forests that make up 77% of its area. It is also one of the important habitats of the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), a globally-renowned endangered species. Other important species which make this ecosystem their home include the clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa , binturong or bear cat Arctictis binturong , Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus), pangolin (Manis javanica), tapir (Tapirus indicus) and various rare and endangered tree species.
The Bukit Tigapuluh ecosystem encompasses 1,067,002 hectares, ranging from moderately undulating to steep hilly terrain. The area stretches across the Riau and Jambi provinces of Sumatra Island, and is dominated by lowland forest (97%)). It is an ecosystem recogni ed for its high level of biological diversity. Central to the ecosystem is the 144,233 hectare Bukit Tigapuluh National Park, which contains one of the few remaining primary tropical lowland forests in Sumatra. The Bukit Tigapuluh ecosystem is also one of the few remaining refuges of endangered species such as the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), and orangutan (Pongo abelii), as well as other scienti cally important species such as the white-winged duck (Cairina scutulata), milky stork (Mycteria cinerea), helmeted hornbill (Rhinopla vigil), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Asiatic golden cat (Catopuma temminckii), Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), pangolin (Manis javanica), slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), serow (Capricornis Sumatraensis), and siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus). The area is home to the indigenous Talang Mamak and Suku Anak Dalam people.
The Kampar Peninsula ecosystem is a contiguous peat swamp forest of 743,726 hectares, located within the Pelelawan and Siak Districts, Riau Province, on the east coast of Sumatra. The Kampar Peninsula is also considered an important habitat for critically endangered Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and other protected and endangered ora and fauna. These include the Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), pangolin (Manis javanica), siamang gibbon (Hylobates syndactylus), false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), white-winged duck (Cairina scutulata), lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus) and milky stork (Mycteria cinerea), as well as tree species including ramin (Gonystilusbancanus), meranti (Shorea spp) and kempas (Kompassia malacensis).
The Kerumutan ecosystem is a combination of peat swamp forest, lowland rainforest, and fresh water swamp forest ecosystems. It covers 1.334.550 hectares of Riau province, in the centre of Sumatra Island. Part of the ecosystem is comprised of the 120,000 hectare Kerumutan Nature Reserve. There are various types of protected trees found in this ecosystem, including meranti (Shorea spp) and punak (Tetramerista glabra). Kerumutan is dominated by peat swamp forests that function as one of the province’s critical habitats for the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Malayan sun bear (Helarctos malayanus),rhinoceros hornbill (Buceros rhinoceros), Asian arowana (Schleropages formosus), white-winged duck (Cairina scutulata) and false gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii). The Kerumutan Nature reserve is a vital ecosystem for migratory birds, and has been identified as an Important Bird Area by Birdlife International. The protection of the reserve depends on sustainable management of the wider Kerumutan ecosystem.
The Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSK-BB) ecosystem covers 941,200 hectares and is located in Riau province, Sumatra, Indonesia, some 120 km north of the Equator and roughly 200 km southwest of Singapore. Most of the area is part of the Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSK-BB) Biosphere Reserve. The reserve is a contiguous ecosystem covering over 705.000 hectares. It was established in 2009 during the 21st Session of the International Coordinating Council of the Man and the Biosphere Programme, UNESCO. The area is managed using the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere concept in which key partners work together to sustainably manage an area’s resources. The biosphere reserve consists of three main zones 1)a 178,722 hectare core area designated for conservation and research; 2)a 222,245 hectare buffer one for activities compatible with sound forest management practices, including APP pulpwood suppliers’ plantation forests; and 3)a 304,123 hectare transition zone for cultivation or production activities.
The Dangku-Meranti ecosystem covers 1,048,652 hectares in the Musi Banyu Asin regency of South Sumatra province, and is a mosaic ecosystem consisting of conservation forests, protection forests, production forests and ecosystem restoration areas. The ecosystem is dominated by a lowland rainforest ecosystem. The core area of the ecosystem is the 29,080 hectare angku Nature Reserve, which functions as an important habitat for Sumatran tigers, and as a refuge area for various types of wildlife and endangered animals such as the Sumatran elephant, tapir (Tapirus indicus), and Malayan sun bear. The reserve’s lowland forest area is covered by various high value plant species such as meranti (Shorea spp), tembesu (Fagraea fragrans), merbau (Intsia sp) and jelutung (Dyera costulata). The ecosystem’s production forest area also plays a signi cant role, providing a link between subpopulations of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and thus providing necessary genetic diversity to the local populations.
The Padang Sugihan ecosystem covers 1,650,123 hectares and is located on the east coast of South Sumatra province. This ecosystem consists of peat swamp forests, freshwater swamp forests, and mangrove ecosystems. The Padang Sugihan Nature Reserve encompasses approximately 75,000 hectares within this ecosystem, and was established in response to the government of Air Sugihan’s decision to develop transmigration areas through which to herd wild elephants between 1982 and 1983. The Padang Sugihan ecosystem is one of nine habitats on Sumatra for the critically endangered Sumatran elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus).
The Berbak-Sembilang ecosystem refers to a large area on the east coast of South Sumatra and ambi province which covers 1,136,758 hectares. It is a combination of peat swamp forest, freshwater swamp forest, mangroves, and lowland forest ecosystems. There are two national parks in this ecosystem. The Sembilang National Park (202,986 hectares) extends northward from the mouth of the Musi Banyu Asin estuary to the river Benu on the Jambi border, where it becomes contiguous with the Berbak National Park. The Sembilang National Park is the largest remaining area of mangroves in western Indonesia. The Berbak National Park (162,700 hectares) is predominantly made up of peat swamp and freshwater swamp forests. The Berbak-Sembilang ecosystem remains one of a few ecosystems with viable populations of Sumatran tigers.