Belantara has chosen to focus the vast majority of its conservation supports on ten program distribution areas hose locations span five provinces in Sumatra and Kalimantan islands. These ten specified grant distribution areas cover 10,145,187.85 hectares of land that includes 4 national parks, 9 wildlife areas, 4 nature reserves, and 2 grand forest parks; as well as Biosphere Reserves. Just over 1,000 vertebrate species have been identified within Belantara's grant distribution areas, including 209 species that are protected by the overnment of Indonesia and 213 species that are globally endangered according to IUCN's Red List.
Indicators for the identification of the priority program distribution areas were based on:
The Kutai ecosystem consists of several ecosystem types - tropical lowland forest, peat swamp forest, freshwater swamp forest, mangrove forest, kerangas forest and located on the north side of the Mahakam River, East Borneo province.
Its ecosystems include Maau Lake, Santan Lake, Besar Lake and Sirapan Lake. The Kutai ecosystem has 543 vertebrate species, 116 of which are protected species and 121 of them are listed in the IUCN red list.
In Kutai’s ecosystem there is a 198,629 ha area that is reserved for the Kutai National Park, which is known as an important habitat for the Bornean Orangutans; There are 10 species of primates and about 90 other mammal species, including freshwater dolphins or Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris) and the Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), which are endangered. Kutai National Park is also home to over 300 species of birds.
Based on the education level percentage, 29.1% of the populace graduated Highschool (SMA/SMK), while less than 5% are able to enter higher levels of education.
The employment absorption sectors from the highest to lowest are: trading (17.6%), community services (12.6%), mining and quarrying (10.1%), construction (7.4%), and agriculture (7.1%).
The Kubu Ecosystem covers an area of 922,821 ha located in the southwestern province of West Borneo, consisting of lowland tropical forests, peat swamps, freshwater swamps and mangrove forests.
There are 57 species of vertebrates, which 35 of them are protected species, and 24 of them are species that are listed in the IUCN red list column. This area is also known as a vital habitat for the Bornean Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), Proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) and False gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii).
Coastal areas and estuaries of the Kubu ecosystem are one of the few habitats of Pesut or Irrawaddy dolphins (Orcaella brevirostris), an endangered water mammal. Other protected species found in the Kubu ecosystem include Sun Bears (Helarctos malayanus), Grey Gibbons or Owa kelempiau (Hylobates muelleri), Slow loris (Nycticebus coucang), Tarsius bangka or Mentilin (Tarsius bancanus).
Communities in the Kubu area use the ecosystem in this area as gardens or rice fields, thus most of them work in the plantation and agriculture sector, this is because the highe percentage of them not graduating from elementary school -by 32%, while those who have graduated from elementary school consist of 20% of the community, 11% gratuated from junior high school, and below 2% have a chance of a higher level education; the remaining 18% have not received an education.
Senepis is an ecosystem that is located in the province of North Sumatra, Sumatra Island, Indonesia. The senepis ecosystem covers 322,966 ha and is dominated by peat swamp forest which constitutes 77% of its territory.
Home to 69 vertebrate species; which 40 out of the 69 species are protected and the other 24 species are on IUCN red list. The Sumatran tiger habitat (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), Binturong or Cat Bear (Arctictis binturon), Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), Pangolin (Manis javanica), Tapir (Tapirus indicus) and various rare species of endangered and endangered species globally can also be found in this region.
The community of Senepis mostly work in these sectors: plantation (32.58%), agriculture (12.91%), trade (12.88%), community services (13.37%), and other sectors absorbing workers below 7%.
In terms of education, the percentage of Senepis locals who graduated from elementary school are 33%; junior high, 19%; high school, 18%; and the remaining 6% have never received any education.
Bukit Tigapuluh is an ecosystem known for its high biodiversity, with an area of 1,067,002 ha stretched between Riau province and Jambi province on Sumatra Island and is 97% dominated by lowland forest and 3% peat swamp forests.
The core of this region's ecosystem is the Bukit Tigapuluh National Park with an area of 144,223 ha, which is one of the few remaining primary lowland rainforests on Sumatra Island.
In the Bukit Tigapuluh area there are 128 vertebrate species, which 56 species of them are protected, and 64 of them species are included in the long list of the IUCN red list.
This area is also one of the few remaining displaced species of three endangered species such as the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) and Orangutan (Pongo abelii).
The education percentage of Bukit Tigapuluh area’s population are: 23% have not graduated from elementary school, 32% have graduated from elementary school, 18% have graduated from junior high school, 15% have graduated from high school, and under 3% have the opportunity to get a higher level education, while 8% of the population are not yet attending school.
This level of education affects the variation of the work sector, where the plantation sector is a labor-absorbing sector of 62.37%, the trade sector absorbs 11.31% of the workforce, the other sectors absorb only under 8%.
The ecosystem of Kampar Peninsula is 743,726 ha of peat swamp forest located in Pelalawan and Siak districts, Riau Province.
The Kampar Peninsula is also considered an important habitat as it is home to 156 vertebrate species, 61 protected species, and 50 other species, which are listed in the IUCN red list. The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), as well as other protected floras and faunas, such as the Sun bear (Helarctos malayanus), Sunda pangolin (Manis javanica), Siamang (Hylobates syndactylus), False gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii), White-winged duck (Cairina scutulata), Lesser adjutant (Leptoptilos javanicus) and Milky stork (Mycteria cinerea), as well as tree species including Ramin (Gonystylus bancanus), Meranti (Shorea spp) and Kempas (Koompassia malacensis) are some typical floras and faunas.
The community works in the plantation sector (37.28%), trade (12.28%), and community services (11.33%).
The education percentage of Kampar Peninsula’s residents who have passed primary school are 27.44%; junior high, 18.06%; high school, 21.08%; went to a higher education (3%), and those who have not received education, 7%.
The ecosystem of Kerumutan is a combination of peat swamp forests, lowland rain forests and freshwater swamp forests ecosystems with an area of 1.334.850 ha. Within the Kerumutan ecosystem there is the Kerumutan Nature Reserve ecosystem with an area of 120.00 ha.
Kerumutan Nature Reserve is a vital ecosystem for migratory birds and has been identified as an Important Bird Area (IBA) by Birdlife International.
There are 73 vertebrate habitats, 53 protected species and 35 species on the IUCN red list. Different types of protected trees, including Meranti (Shorea spp) and Punak (Tetramerista glabra) and peat swamp forests that dominate Kerumutan region become one of Riau Province's critical habitat functions for the Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Clouded leopards (Neofelis nebulosa) Sun bear s(Helarctos malayanus), Rhinoceros hornbills (Buceros rhinoceros), Arwana asia (Schleropages formosus), White-winged duck (Cairina scutulata) and False gharial (Tomistoma schlegelii).
Most of Kerumutan locals only receive elementary school education (33.91%), junior high education (17.16%), and high school education (16.22%), and the percentage of those who have the opportunity to obtain a higher level is below 3%.
Of the 323,924 local Kerumutan population, (45.30%) work in the plantation sector, (11.27%) in the trade sector, (9.22%) in the community service and (9.09%) in the agricultural sector.
The Giam Siak Kecil-Bukit Batu (GSK-BB) Ecosystem covers 941,200 ha and is located in Riau province on the Island of Sumatra, Indonesia.
There are 222 vertebrate species, 63 protected species and 43 species that are listed on IUCN red list. Several species can be found in this region, such as: Sumatran elephants, sun bears, ungko, and tapirs.
In 2009, UNESCO assigned 705,271 ha of the GSKBB ecosystem as a Biosphere Reserve.The GKSBB is also being managed using UNESCO’s Man and the Biosphere (MAB) concept, consisting of three main zones: 1) The core area of 178,722 ha devoted to conservation and research; 2) The buffer zone area of 222,245 ha used for activities in accordance with good forest governance practices; and 3) The transitional zone area of 304,123 ha, which is used for cultivation or production activity.
Local communities in the GSKBB reserve area mostly work in the plantation sector (26.02%), the rest work in the trade sector (17.23%) and community services (12.51%).
In terms of education, the majority of GSKBB residents have graduated from high school (28%) and there are (3%) residents who have a higher likelihood of going through a higher education, the rest (5%) have never received an education.
The Dangku-Meranti ecosystem has an area of 1,048,652 ha and is located in the Musi Banyu District in South Sumatra Province and is a mosaic ecosystem consisting of conservation forests, protection forests, production forests and ecosystem restoration areas dominated by lowland rain forest ecosystems.
The area of the ecosystem of the Dangku Nature Reserve is 29,080 ha. In Dangku Nature Reserve’s ecosystem can be found 452 vertebrate species, 122 of which are listed in IUCN red records.
Dangku Nature Reserve also serves as an important habitat for the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) and as a refuge for various wildlife and endangered species such as the Sumatran Elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus), Asian Tapir (Tapiris indicus), and Sun Bears (Helarctos malayanus). In the lowland forest of Dangku Nature Reserve area, there are various high value plants, such as Meranti (Shorea spp), Tembesu (Fagraea fragrans), Merbau (Intsia sp.) and Jelutung (Dyera costulata).
With an area exceeding 1 million ha, people in Dangku Meranti should be wise in the management and utilization of the area. 54.94% of the people in Dangku Meranti work in the plantation sector, 11.44% work in the trade sector, 4.33% work in the agricultural sector, and under 5% work for other supporting sectors.
The level of education is also one of the factors in determining the employment sector, of which 33.7% of the majority of the population has graduated from elementary school, 17.53% have graduated from junior high school, 17.20% have graduated from high school, and 3% have the opportunity to go to highe educationr.
The Padang Sugihan Ecosystem covers 1,650,213 ha and is located on the east coast of the South Sumatra province and consist of peat swamp forests, freshwater swamp forest and mangrove ecosystems.
Within this ecosystem there is the Sugihan Padang Nature Reserve which covers about 75,000 ha and was established in response from the local government of Air Sugihan to develop the transmigration area to graze wild elephants between 1982 and 1983.
There are 250 species of vertebrate species, which 56 of them are in the IUCN red list. This region also became one of the nine habitats on the island of Sumatra for Sumatran Elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus), which are threatened with extinction.
The population’s educational level in Padang Sugihan area is as follows: an average of 40% are primary school graduates, 14% have graduated from junior high school, 10% have graduated from high school, and under 3% have access to higher education.
There are two employment sectors that absorb the most labor, those are the agriculture sector with 41,16% of absorption rate and the plantation sector with 23.78% of employment absorption rate.
The Berbak-Sembilang Ecosystem refers to a vast area located on the east coast of South Sumatra and Jambi covering an area of 1,136,758 ha.
This area consists of a combination of peat swamp forests, freshwater swamp forests, mangrove forests and lowland forest ecosystems. A total of 461 species of vertebrates can be found in this area, 99 of them are listed in the IUCN red list, including the Sumatran tiger habitat (Panthera tigris sumatrae).
There are two national parks in this ecosystem, Sembilang National Park (202,896 ha), which is the largest mangrove area in western Indonesia where the area is located stretching north from the estuary of Musi Banyuasin to the Benu River on the Jambi border and adjacent to Berbak National Park (162,700 ha), which consisting largely of peat swamps and freshwater swamp forests.
The education level of the population in this area can be seen in the following percentage; those who have graduated from primary school (32%), junior high (17%), high school (19%), and thos who have the opportunity to get a higher level education (below 5%).
On matters of employement absorbtion on this area, the plantation sector employes 29,10% of the employement rate, the trade sector 16,25%, and the agriculture sector 16,88%, other supporting sector absorbs labor less than 10%.